Prehistoric Pile Dwellings in Switzerland auf einer größeren Karte anzeigen

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Aargau

CH-AG-01, Beinwil am See–Ägelmoos: The only Early Bronze Age site known to date on Lake Hallwil still contains remarkable upstanding features and a substantial cultural layer of about 60 cm thickness. Therefore the site is important in terms of understanding the architecture of the time. Because only a very limited amount of research has been undertaken to date, the site has great potential for future research.
CH-AG-02, Seengen–Riesi: Three building phases at this site represent the cultural development during the Late Bronze Age (Ha A2 and Ha B3, 11th–9th centuries BC) on the Central Swiss Plateau. Various types of excellently preserved structures like log and post-and-beam constructions are of particular interest and therefore provide different architectural structures to those found at Sursee–Halbinsel (CH-LU-06) which helps us understand the architecture of the time.  

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Berne

CH-BE-01, Biel-Vingelz–Hafen: The site is one of the best-preserved lakeside settlements on Lake Bienne and it represents an important reserve for future research. Small interventions have shown occupation phases around 2970/2820 and 2780/2700 BC. The site is on the slope of the Jurassic mountain range. Therefore it is of special interest because it occupies an ‘uncomfortable’ situation showing the high-population pressure in the beginning 3rd millennium BC.
CH-BE-02, Lüscherz–Dorfstation: Besides artifacts from the Middle Neolithic period and the Late Bronze Age, the site yielded important reference finds of the Lüscherz culture, which was named after the site. Together with Sutz-Lattrigen–Rütte (CH-BE-06), Lüscherz-Dorfstation allows to compare two contemporaneous sites of the End Neolithic. Well preserved archaeological layers can be found under modern aggradation and important pile fields can be still found in the lake.

CH-BE-05, Seedorf–Lobsigensee: This site contains an impressive stratigraphic sequence of Neolithic cultural layers. Settlement structures have been dated to around 3900 BC. The site represents an outstanding settlement situation most probably on a former islet and complements the nearby Neolithic settlements on Lake Bienne. The material culture of the site shows links to Alpine regions. Finally, a small trench in 2007 yielded a Mesolithic layer underlying the pile-dwelling features which is another very interesting aspect of Seedorf–Lobsigensee.
CH-BE-06, Sutz-Lattrigen–Rütte: Because of its number and high quality dendrochronological dates and its intact archaeological layers the site is invaluable for the research into the cultural historical processes that took place during the Final Neolithic period and for the subject of the emergence of Corded Ware-influenced Auvernier-Cordé Culture in Western Switzerland. Together with Lüscherz–Dorfstation (CH-BE-02), Sutz-Lattrigen–Rütte allows to compare two contemporaneous sites of the End Neolithic (28th century BC). The site is one of the few sites with ceramics of the Bell beaker culture as well and will provide the research of this European phenomenon with exact dendrochronological dates in the future.
CH-BE-07, Twann–Bahnhof: The site is of great importance from the point of view of research history and marks the beginning of modern pile-dwelling research. The results from the excavation in the 1970ies explained and changed completely the view of culture evolution in 4th millennium BC (Cortaillod - Western Horgen).  For the first time the ‘missing link’ of sites around 3400 BC were found. Its important stratigraphy has also yielded important reference assemblages for the entire 4th millennium BC. The long stratigraphy provides interesting comparisons regarding cultural development especially of the Middle Neolithic with Corcelles-près-Concise–Stations de Concise (CH-VD-05) on Lake Neuchâtel.
CH-BE-08, Vinelz–Strandboden: In Vinelz–Strandboden exists a huge area with important Neolithic settlement remains in a very good state of preservation. The Final Neolithic sequence is important above all for the 29th and 27th century BC and allows observing the cultural development in this period. The discovery of a wheel from 2750 BC in the low water zone is particularly remarkable as well.

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Fribourg

CH-FR-02, Gletterens–Les Grèves: Le secteur de Gletterens est connu de longue date pour ses villages lacustres du Cortaillod, du Horgen et de l'âge du Bronze final. La découverte de phases anciennes de la culture de Horgen occidentale (33e siècle av. J.-C.) et la présence de plusieurs crânes humains constituent les éléments remarquables de la station « Les Grèves » qui ne sont pas connus sur d’autres sites de cette région.
CH-FR-03, Greng–Spitz: Investigated since the 19th century, the Greng area very quickly stood out due to its exceptionally rich body of finds. Moreover, the excellent preservation of the timbers has provided great insight into the architecture not only of the Late Bronze age village, but also of the Cortaillod and Final Neolithic settlements.
CH-FR-04, Haut-Vully–Môtier I: Test excavations recently carried out at this site identified an archaeological layer of up to 70 cm thickness. It is still preserved over an area of 13,000 m2 dating in a later phase of the Neolithic. Well preserved and bearing great archaeological potential, it undoubtedly presents an exceptional site on the northern shore of Lake Morat and is an important reserve for future research.
CH-FR-05, Murten–Segelboothafen: It is the last village of the southern shoreline of Lake Morat which is not completely excavated or threatened by disappearance because of erosion. Above all the part of Murten–Segelboothafen on dry land is very well preserved and contains a thick cultural layer. Its dating of the final phase of Cortaillod Culture is quit rare and it is a very good example of a village structure of the ‘Riedstation’-type.
CH-FR-07, Noréaz–Praz des Gueux: The archaeological features of this site are characterized by an exceptionally good state of preservation. This is the only lakeside settlement found on a small lake in the Three Lakes Region. Its location on a height of 620 m above sea level is quit unusual for pile-dwelling sites and therefore Noréaz-Praz-des-Gueux has a very interesting potential to compare its economy of a margin region with other sites of the classic Cortaillod Culture.

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Geneva

CH-GE-01, Collonge-Bellerive–Bellerive I: This extended Late Bronze Age site is the best-preserved Swiss lakeshore site and therefore an important reserve for future research. Earliest series of dendrochronological dates cover felling phases between 998 and 880 BC, associated with at least three very well-preserved strata of archaeological layers. Together with Chens-sur-Léman–Tougues (FR-74-03), this site allows to compare two simultaneous sites of the Late Bronze Age.
CH-GE-02, Corsier–Corsier-Port: Only the remains of the earliest phase of occupation during the Cortaillod Culture are still well preserved but this Middle Neolithic archaeological layer is unique in the entire region of Lake Geneva and contains a rich body of pottery finds and organic material. Therefore this site is an important example of the 39th century BC. Marking the earliest occupation of the shores of Lake Geneva, it is an important reference assemblage.

CH-GE-03, Versoix–Versoix-Bourg: The main outstanding feature of this village is a gravel pathway interspersed with timbers running at right angles to the current shoreline. The density of well-preserved piles indicates a long sequence of occupation. The dendrochronological analysis of the site will most definitely provide essential information about the Late Bronze Age occupation of the region of onLake Geneva. Most probably it is the largest Late Bronze Age site north of the Alps.

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Lucerne

CH-LU-01, Egolzwil 3: The site is one of the earliest lake-dwelling settlements in Switzerland and therefore contains an important Egolzwil Culture reference assemblage. The well-preserved house floors with hearths prove that the houses in this region were built directly on the ground. The village existed only 6 years, and thus shows a short but precisely defined episode within the Neolithic period. Moreover, it provides favourable preservation conditions for wood and other organic materials such as plants and bone and is an important site for palaeo-ecological studies on the Wauwil Bog.
CH-LU-03, Hitzkirch–Seematte: Comprehensive stratigraphic sequence with several settlements dating from the Neolithic period (above all from the Early and Classic Cortaillod Culture and also from the Late Neolithic Horgen Culture) that have barely been examined to date and thus still hold great scientific potential. A small scaled excavation yielded well-preserved post constructions, hearths placed directly on the ground and good conditions for the preservation of organic material such as wooden artifacts, textiles, seeds and bones.
CH-LU-06, Sursee–Halbinsel: The stratigraphic sequences of the different parts of the site (Zellmoos and Gammainseli) each contain three Late Bronze Age phases with rich assemblages. The site therefore allows us to trace the cultural development within the Late Bronze Age and the settlement dynamics in the micro region. The site has yielded structures such as ground plans of houses with stone floors and most notably a unique Late Bronze Age oven. The Neolithic layers are well preserved and date slightly pre- and post-date Hitzkirch–Seematte (CH-LU-03), thus adding to the sequence of the Cortaillod Culture on the Central Swiss Plateau.

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Neuchâtel

CH-NE-01, Saint-Aubin - Sauges–Port-Conty: The Neolithic settlements on the southwestern flank of the port Saint-Aubin, together with those at Auvernier constitute an important resource for future archaeological research in the Three Lakes Region. Part of the artifacts found here were used to define the Port-Conty type Cortaillod phase and it is therefore an important complex of reference. A recent analysis of two old trenches has revealed evidence of a manmade earth mound, which probably had a religious function similar to that of the associated site Marin-Epagnier–Les Piécettes, which also dates from the Port-Conty phase. Only the mound of Port-Conty is still preserved.
CH-NE-02, Gorgier–Les Argilliez: Large preserved field of piles attributed to two settlements from the classic and late phases of the Cortaillod culture. The absence of more recent piles allows studying the entire organization of the dwellings and the internal development of the village. An important aim is to preserve this site for future generations.
CH-NE-04, Bevaix–L'Abbaye 2: This Bronze Age site is one of the very rare sites in the Three Lakes Region to have been occupied for a consecutive period of more than 200 years. Its dendrochronological potential is exceptional. This site is also particularly interesting since it can be compared to neighbouring associated sites. This allows the understanding of its longetivity and the founding of other structured villages in the same territory putting forward the problems of a strong population growth and the extensive land use.
CH-NE-06, Auvernier–La Saunerie: The archaeological body of evidence from Auvernier–La Saunerie is made up of three series of settlements consisting of numerous layers representing, together with Auvernier–Les Graviers (CH-NE-07), all pile-dwelling periods from the Middle to the Final Neolithic (with latest date at 2434 BC). Considering the overlapping layers of different Final Neolithic villages in one place this site is a lakeside tell with its specific problems. The definition of the ‘Auvernier-Cordé Ware’ phase was based on finds from the Final Neolithic horizon discovered here.
CH-NE-07, Auvernier–Les Graviers: The site of Graviers is particularly well preserved. It is covered by a huge stone covering (Tenevières) formed by the superposition of several anthropogenic Neolithic deposits. The presence of Early and Late Bronze Age layers, but also of those of the Horgen phase of the Final Neolithic make this site complementary to La Saunerie (CH-NE-06) and allow following the development of the cultural phases in the bay of Auvernier.

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Nidwalden

CH-NW-01, Stansstad–Kehrsiten: Stansstad–Kehrsiten is the only known and preserved site on Lake Lucerne. It is located in an unusual topographic and geographical location below seven meters of water directly on the edge of the Alps. Several dendrochronological dates from the 35th century BC point to the transition between the Pfyn and Horgen Cultures, a period which has yielded hardly any evidence to date. The site contains excellent sample material for archaeobiological investigations, making it an outstanding reservoir for future research.

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St. Gall

CH-SG-01, Rapperswil-Jona/Hombrechtikon–Feldbach: Large multi-phase settlement of which distinctive house plans and a cultural layer dating from the middle phase of the Corded Ware period is of particular importance. Another interesting aspect is evidence of a settlement from the transitional phase between the Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The site has yielded a date of 1490 BC, which is very late within the ‘Early Bronze Age’ pile-dwelling period. The dates refer to the same period as the transport routes across the lake from Hurden-Rosshorn to Rapperswil (CH-SZ-01) and slightly post-date the site Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum (CH-SG-02).
CH-SG-02, Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum: Interesting Early Bronze Age site with multiple palisades and a clear visible settlement structure located on a former island. 17th century BC dates point to the same period as the early footbridges across the isthmus between Rapperswil and Hurden-Rosshorn (CH-SZ-01). The settlement was certainly of great importance as the centre of the region and it may even have played a role in controlling this important transport route.

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Schaffhausen

CH-SH-01, Thayngen–Weier I-III: The site stands out due to its well-preserved remains of houses from the Pfyn Culture, which provides important insight into the architecture of bog settlements. Because several dendrochronologically dated settlements replaced each other within a short period of time, the development of the Pfyn Culture can be traced on site in Thayngen–Weier I-III. In chronological terms, the site complements the finds and features from the later site at Gachnang-Niederwil–Egelsee (CH-TG-04) and the as yet little-researched Pfyn period layers from Hüttwilen-Uerschhausen–Nussbaumersee (CH-TG-05) to form a Pfyn Culture sequence of 300 years with dendrochronological dates and hardly any gaps.

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Solothurn

CH-SO-01, Aeschi SO–Burgäschisee Ost: Besides a Middle and Late Palaeolithic occupation, Burgäschisee Ost is important because it has yielded a settlement dating from the Egolzwil Culture. Therefore it is one of the earliest pile-dwelling sites north of the Alps and marks the beginning of the pile-dwelling period in the extended region. During its main phase of occupation (39th century BC) in the Cortaillod Culture, the finds exhibited western and eastern influences and therefore represented a 'border' region. The same applied during the Final Neolithic period. Burgäschisee Ost was thus the most southwestern among 'Classic' Corded Ware settlements. Finally, the site provided opportunities for pioneering scientific research (pollen analysis) and is an important archive for climate research.
CH-SO-02, Inkwil BE/Bolken SO–Inkwilersee Insel: Unique pile-dwelling settlement from the Late Bronze Age in this region with an outstanding location on a very small island. Inkwilersee Insel is situated in a border area between western and eastern influences during the Late Bronze Age and therefore bridges a significant gap between the pile-dwelling sites in eastern and western Switzerland. Ancient reports mention important occupation layers and timber constructions. Recent augering has revealed an excellent potential for rich organic finds and broad scientific data (e.g. a unique 'wooden sword' from the Late Bronze Age).

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Schwyz

CH-SZ-01, Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn: Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn is an exceptional site, which provides early evidence of transport routes combined with special metal finds (sacrificial offerings?). The site contains several crossings, the earliest of which dates from the Horgen period. Several Early Bronze Age construction phases have been identified and there are also remains from the Hallstatt and Roman periods providing information (e.g. dendrochronological dates) about periods from which no pile-dwelling sites are known.
CH-SZ-02, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld: One of several settlement phases has provided Early Corded Ware dates which is of particular scientific interest in terms of the emergence and dissemination of this cultural group in Switzerland. The layers are extraordinarily well preserved and hold valuable reserves of research material. Moreover, the settlement extends over 300 to 400 metres and is of great interest due to its function and internal organization on this important transport route.

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Thurgau

CH-TG-01, Arbon–Bleiche 2-3: Arbon–Bleiche 2 gave its name to an Early Bronze Age cultural group and is thus an important reference complex. Excavations carried out from 1993 to 1995 revealed that Arbon–Bleiche 3 also contains an excellently preserved single-phased settlement dating from a rarely found period (the transition between the Pfyn and Horgen Cultures). Its cultural layer and features provide detailed insight into prehistoric life in a village around 3384–3370 BC. A village made up of parallel rows of houses yielding a huge assemblage of finds, which provide evidence of the organizational structure and long-distance contact for example with the Danubian Baden-Boléraz Culture.
CH-TG-03, Eschenz–Insel Werd: The importance of this settlement is based on its special location on an island at the effluent of Lake Untersee (lower part of Lake Constance) into the River Rhine. Previous investigations have revealed that this island was occupied from the Epipalaeolithic period to the Middle Ages. Occupation layers from the Early Pfyn, Late Pfyn, and Horgen Cultures, along with well preserved Corded Ware and Late Bronze Age layers are important for this region. The pile field bears great potential for dendrochronological research.
CH-TG-04, Gachnang-Niederwil–Egelsee: Excellently preserved site with several Late Pfyn Culture phases with almost all the features still below ground. Numerous crucibles for melting copper point to an early phase of copper processing. A sequence of well-preserved house floors on top of each other provides particularly interesting information about the architecture of the houses. In chronological terms, the site complements the finds and features from the earlier site at Thayngen–Weier I–III (CH-SH-01) and the as yet little-researched Pfyn period layers from Hüttwilen–Nussbaumersee (CH-TG-05) to form a sequence of 300 years with dendrochronological dates and hardly any gaps, based on which the development of the Pfyn Culture can be traced.
CH-TG-05, Hüttwilen-Uerschhausen–Nussbaumersee: The well-preserved Late Bronze Age (Ha B3) and Early Iron Age wetland settlement is unique throughout the region around the Alps. The site contains excellently preserved cultural layers of several metres thickness with settlement phases from the Pfyn Culture which, however, have not been investigated in detail to date. In chronological terms, these layers complement Thayngen–Weier I-III (CH-SH-01) and Gachnang-Niederwil–Egelsee (CH-TG-04) to form a sequence of 300 years with dendrochronological dates and hardly any gaps.

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Vaud

CH-VD-02, Chabrey–Pointe de Montbec I: This huge Late Bronze Age site, preserved in an intact natural environment, shows a very regular architectural organization. The houses are oriented perpendicularly to the shoreline with at least two successive stages of development, protected by a quadrangular system of palisades (100 x 70 m). The wooden piles, well preserved in the lake, can be put in relationship with an underwater archaeological layer.
CH-VD-03, Chevroux–La Bessime: Chevroux–La Bessime is one of the best preserved sites of the complex of settlements in the Chevroux region, an area with a particular density of settlements and therefore great potential to research the local dynamic expansion of habitats. The interest of this site is the presence of a particularly well preserved archaeological layer of the Middle Neolithic.
CH-VD-04, Chevroux–Village: This well defined and documented site has several archaeological layers belonging to different phases between the beginning and the end of the Late and the Final Neolithic (Horgen Culture, Early and Final Lüscherz, Auvernier-Cordé) well dated by dendrochronological dates. This site is particularly interesting because it reflects the vision of dynamic expansion of habitats, over a period of more than 500 years.
CH-VD-05, Corcelles-près-Concise–Stations de Concise: The archaeological sequence includes exceptional finds going from the Middle Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age and contains the remains of more than 25 villages. These villages show a well preserved architectural organization. Regarding to the Middle Neolithic, the relationships with the Néolithique Moyen Bourguignon in Eastern France, is proved by a big ensemble of ceramics and exact dendrochronological dates as well. The long stratigraphy provides interesting comparison regarding cultural development of the first half of the 4th millennium BC with Twann–Bahnhof (CH-BE-07) on Lake Bienne. The evidences of Early Bronze Age are of importance as well, because different archaeological layers allow us to study the cultural development of this period otherwise rarely presented in the Three Lakes Region.
CH-VD-10, Grandson–Corcelettes Les Violes: This Late Bronze Age site was inhabited during two centuries. Its size is considerable and the archaeological layers are exceptionally well preserved in the emerged zone, in a very dense field of wooden piles. It is one of the most important Late Bronze Age sites on the Lake Neuchatel and a European reference for ceramic and bronze artifacts. A remarkable find is an ash wheel giving evidence of technological progress.
CH-VD-11, Morges–Les Roseaux: This settlement gave the name to the Early Bronze Age Roseaux Culture, referring to the spatulate axes and richly decorated ceramic cups found at this site. It includes the most complete occupational sequence for the Early Bronze Age throughout the Lemanic Basin and its well-preserved archaeological layer still contains a great number of archaeological objects.
CH-VD-12, Morges–Stations de Morges: This archaeological complex is particularly well preserved and belongs to two distinct occupation phases. The southern part still contains timber-built architectural elements linked with the Bronze Age occupation level. The northern part contains an archaeological layer from the Final Neolithic (Early Lüscherz Culture) rich in pottery and other organic material. Therefore the site is important because it allows us to observe the spread of western influences on the culture of eastern areas.
CH-VD-13, Mur–Chenevières de Guévaux I: It is one of the rare sites of the Lake of Morat which can be dated of the Early Bronze Age. The very rich archaeological layer belongs to a single stage of occupation. Therefore the remains are not of a big complexity and thus well understandable. The dendrochronological dates (1660/1659 BC) belong to a period not covered by other sites such as Corcelles-près-Concise–Stations de Concise (CH-VD-05) and therefore the site gives important additional information to the Early Bronze Age in the Three Lakes Region.
CH-VD-15, Yverdon–Baie de Clendy: This complex of well preserved settlements at the southern end of Lake Neuchatel is a reference for the regional Neolithic period, above all during the Final Neolithic. Of particular interest is the situation near the stone alignements of the Promenade des Anglaises as well. They have been contemporaneous at least during the first half of the 4th millennium BC and therefore Yverdon–Baie de Clendy and the alignements is a unique ensemble of a village and its religious symbols.
CH-VD-16, Yvonand–Le Marais: This site is essential for the history of the Neolithic population of western Switzerland. The particularity of this site consists in the transition between Horgen and Lüscherz Culture denoting a cultural change. In addition, it marks the most Western point of the distribution area of Horgen Culture.

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Zug

CH-ZG-04, Zug–Otterswil/Insel Eielen: Zug–Otterswil/Insel Eielen is situated on a former peninsula on the eastern shore of Lake Zug at the bottom of a steep slope and therefore one of only a small number of pile-dwelling settlements in this area. The body of finds is the most abundant Corded Ware assemblage in Central Switzerland. Typologically, an early and a late phase can be distinguished and therefore the site provides the ideal conditions to observe the cultural development within the Corded Ware Culture.
CH-ZG-05, Zug–Riedmatt: The layers at Zug–Riedmatt are very well preserved, 60–140 cm thick and have also yielded a large amount of organic finds. Ongoing research in a very small test-trench has revealed an extraordinary potential especially for microstratigraphic data with regard to the formation of the cultural layers. The site provides the best preserved reference material of a former phase of Horgen Culture (around 3200 BC) in Central Switzerland.
CH-ZG-06, Zug–Sumpf: Zug–Sumpf is one of the most important Late Bronze Age sites north of the Alps. Parts have already been examined and these excavations yielded extraordinary features such as wooden base plates, walls of cleft timbers or log constructions, as well as an extremely rich inventory of finds of different materials and proving long distance trade.

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Zurich

CH-ZH-01, Erlenbach–Winkel: A number of finds from the Early Bronze Age (20 th/19th centuries BC) and ground plans of Corded Ware houses are particularly interesting. The latter are associated with material from the final phase of the Corded Ware Culture marking a hiatus of 600 years in the period of constructing pile dwellings north of the Alps until the Early Bronze Age. The house constructions are of particular interest because in a European context the Corded Ware Culture is defined mainly by its grave finds whereas settlements are usually missing from the archaeological record.
CH-ZH-02, Greifensee–Storen/Wildsberg: Large settlement area on a very steep slope. Besides the location, a particularly interesting aspect from a scientific point of view is a phase of occupation dating from the Late Horgen Culture. Furthermore, a copper spiral coil and a copper dagger from the Pfyn Culture bear early witness to the processing of metal in this region. The settlement is largely undisturbed and thus holds great scientific potential for future research.
CH-ZH-06, Meilen–Rorenhaab: From the point of view of research history, this site was the starting point of pile-dwelling research. Meilen–Rorenhaab is one of several sites in a small area illustrating the typical settlement dynamics of a micro-region during the Neolithic. All periods are represented here, usually with several settlement phases. Particularly interesting are numerous dendrochronological dates especially from the Early Bronze Age which allow us to study the development of this period.
CH-ZH-07, Wädenswil–Vorder Au: This site has yielded special pottery from the transitional period between the Pfyn and Horgen Cultures. The Corded Ware settlement phase contained a bell beaker, which allows us to draw conclusions on the links between the Corded Ware and Bell Beaker Cultures. The Early Bronze Age settlement phase is also important since it has yielded a special type of pottery which helps trace the distribution of 'Arbon' style pottery in the region of Lake Zurich during the 17th century BC).
CH-ZH-08, Wetzikon–Robenhausen: Wetzikon–Robenhausen is characterized by the excellent preservation of organic remains. An unusual find was a board, which was probably a Pfyn-period door. The site is known for its evidence of textile production. It has yielded numerous excellently preserved organic finds assemblages, mainly of textiles as well as parts of a Neolithic loom.
CH-ZH-09, Zürich–Enge Alpenquai: Zürich–Enge Alpenquai is one of the most important Late Bronze Age lakeside settlements in Central Europe: its huge size and its almost uninterrupted occupation from 1050–800 BC, rich imports and the excellent state of preservation of the layers with unique organic finds and architectural elements make this site a cultural heritage site of worldwide importance. In addition, the final phase dates from the transition to the Iron Age, a period otherwise rarely found.
CH-ZH-10, Zürich–Grosse Stadt Kleiner Hafner: The site is situated in an interesting location near the outlet of Lake Zurich. All periods are represented. Evidence of the earliest farming communities in the region of Lake Zurich, however, is of particular importance. The material from the Neolithic Egolzwil and Cortaillod Cultures forms an important reference assemblage which allows us to study the cultural development during the late 5th and early 4th millennia BC.